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Overview

MeasureOne's standardization API converts data from heterogenous transcript formats into one standardized dataset. All academic transcripts contain similar data but are not easily comparable because of differences in the way institutions record, measure or define the data. Transcripts differ in their grading systems, credit systems, course types, GPA calculation rules, term structures and nomenclature. The underlying logic and standard values are based on insights from over 7000 individual transcripts and our database of school-specific information on grading policies and term structures.

Why Standardize?
1. Cleans and prepares the data for analysis: ensures uniformity in data types, scales/units, and categories for analysis across heterogenous transcripts
2. Addresses data incompleteness: even if a field is not provided on a transcript, whenever possible it is imputed using available data and known relationships
3. Enables comparative analysis: a comparable dataset levels the playing field for all students, ensures robustness of insights and leads to reliable decision-making

Interpreting Standardized Data:
MeasureOne provides Processing Codes for further information on the standardized value for a transcript. A detailed description of Processing Codes can be found here.

Transcripts from non-US academic institutions can be standardized if the document is in English and can be reliably converted to US-equivalent grades and credits.

Standardization Guide

M1 Transcript Schema

Attribute Description Standardized Value
transcript_date Transcript issue date mm/dd/yyyy
school Institution issuing transcript For US Post-Secondary Institutions: As appears in the Integrated Post-Secondary Education Data System (IPEDS).
For High Schools and Foreign Institutions: As on transcript
school_student_id Unique school provided student ID As on Transcript
enrollments object See Enrollment object

Enrollment

Standardized values of enrollment-level aggregates such as CGPA or credits earned are calculated using course-level information and MeasureOne's standardized treatment of grades, retaken courses, transfer terms, in-progress terms, missing credits, etc.

Attribute Description Standardized Value
school_enrollment_id Unique school provided enrollment ID
As on Transcript
enrollment_status
ENUM
Enrollment status as of transcript date GRADUATED (can be imputed), ENROLLED (can be imputed), RE-ENROLLED, LEAVE-OF-ABSENCE, TRANSFERRED-OUT-INTERNAL, TRANSFERRED-OUT-EXTERNAL, PROBATION, TERMINATED, WITHDRAWN
graduation_date Graduation ceremony date mm/dd/yyyy
Populated for graduated students only
college College name As on Transcript
campus Campus name As on Transcript
degrees object See Degree object
degree_awarded_date Degree awarded date mm/dd/yyyy
Populated for graduated students only
major object See Major object
minor object See Minor object
honors Academic honors or awards for current degree
Eg: Cum Laude, Summa Cum Laude, Magna Cum Laude
As on Transcript
credit_system Method of recording hours of study
Eg: Semester Credits, Quarter Credits, Units, Clock Hours
For Post-Secondary Programs: SEMESTER CREDITS (1 course = 3 credits)
For High Schools: UNITS (1 course = 1 or 0.5 unit)
credits object See Credits object
institution_cgpa CGPA for graded courses taken at the institution Calculated using MeasureOne standardized grade system
Scale: 4-point
Formula: (Sum of Quality Points)/(Sum of GPA Credits) Definitions
transfer_cgpa CGPA for transferred courses null
total_cgpa Total CGPA for current program See institution_cgpa
Note: For total_CGPA, MeasureOne considers only courses taken at the institution on a graded basis
last_attended_date Last attended date at current institution mm/dd/yyyy
Can be imputed based from last term details
terms object See Term object

Degree

Each change in degree sought is listed as a separate object

Attribute Description Standardized Value
degree_level
ENUM
Academic level - broad categories Imputed based on Degree, Degree Type, Program Name or Program Plan
UNDERGRADUATE, GRADUATE, HIGH-SCHOOL
degree_type
ENUM
Academic level - granular categories Imputed based on Degree, Program Name or Program Plan
ASSOCIATE, BACHELORS, MASTERS, MASTERS-RESEARCH, FIRST-PROFESSIONAL, DOCTORAL, CERTIFICATE/DIPLOMA, HIGH-SCHOOL-DIPLOMA, NON-DEGREE
degree Degree type and area of study
Eg: Bachelor of Science, MA in Sociology, BA
As on Transcript
program Degree type, broad area of study and subject specialization
Eg: Bachelor of Science in Microbiology, MA in Economics
As on Transcript
order Order in which degrees were sought (reverse chronological) Imputed from program and term information
1 = current/most recent, 2 = previous, etc.
awarded
BOOLEAN
Whether degree is awarded as of transcript date or no Imputed value

Credits

For course-level data, priority is given to reported values when available. If credits earned are not recorded on the transcript, values are imputed based on a combination of credits attemped and grades. For credits attempted, earned and gpa_credits, range: 0-5.

For enrollment-level data, values are calculated using course-level values. For credits attempted, earned and gpa_credits, range: 0-130 (Undergraduate), 0-60 (Graduate), 0-50 (High School).

Attribute Description Standardized Value
attempted Credits attempted Units:
For Post-Secondary Institutions: SEMESTER CREDITS or
For High Schools:UNITS
earned Credits earned Units:
For Post-Secondary Institutions: SEMESTER CREDITS or
For High Schools:UNITS
gpa_credits Credits attempted on courses that are included in the GPA calculation Units:
For Post-Secondary Institutions: SEMESTER CREDITS or
For High Schools:UNITS
quality_points Numerator for GPA calculation
Formula: Credits Attempted x Grade Points Earned
Range (Course): 0-20
Range (Enrollment, Undergraduate): 0-520
Range (Enrollment, Graduate): 0-240
Range (Enrollment, High School): 0-200
source
ENUM
Source of credits Course object: null
Enrollment object: INSTITUTION, TRANSFER, TOTAL

Major

Each declared major or change in declared major is listed as a separate object

Attribute Description Standardized Value
major Subject specialization for current program As on Transcript
concentration Further specialization within major As on Transcript
department Department offering the major As on Transcript
order Order of majors sought (reverse chronological) Imputed from term dates
1 = current/most recent, 2 = previous, etc.

Minor

Each declared minor or change in declared minor is listed as a separate object

Attribute Description Standardized Value
minor Secondary specialization for current program As on Transcript
order Order of minors sought (reverse chronological) Imputed from term dates
1 = current/most recent, 2 = previous, etc.

Term

Post-Secondary Institutions: Each enrolled term at the institution is a separate object.

High Schools: Each high school semester is one term object.

Transfer Terms: Courses taken at a previous institution and transferred in are listed as a separate term. There can be multiple transfer terms, one for each institution from which credits are transferred in.

Advanced Placement Terms: Advanced Placement or CLEP exams that count towards credit requirements are listed as a separate term.

Attribute Description Standardized Value
name Name of term or semester FALL <YYYY>, WINTER <YYYY>, SPRING <YYYY>, SUMMER <YYYY>
Example: FA2018 is converted to FALL 2018, SPR19 is coverted to SPRING 2019, etc.
Note: This attribute is not standardized for high schools or non-US transcripts.
start_date & end_date Start & end dates of the term or semester mm/dd/yyyy

If transcript has a Winter term:
Fall: 10/1 to 12/31
Winter: 1/2 to 3/31
Spring: 4/1 to 6/30
Summer: 7/1 to 9/30

If transcript has no Winter term:
Fall: 8/15 to 12/15
Spring: 1/1 to 5/15
Summer: 5/16/ to 8/14

Note: This attribute is not standardized for high schools or non-US transcripts.
transfer
BOOLEAN
Whether the term represents credits transferred in from an earlier institution true if credits listed for the term were transferred in
transferred_from_school For transfer terms, institution from which the credits were transferred As on Transcript
advanced_placement
BOOLEAN
Whether term represents credits earned via College Board Advanced Placement or CLEP exams true if courses listed for the term are AP or CLEP exams
in_progress
BOOLEAN
Whether term is in progress as of transcript date If not provided, imputed based on grades ("IP" or not yet available) and/or term dates
courses object See Course object

Course

Each course listed on the transcript is one object

Attribute Description Standardized Value
code Course code As on Transcript
name Course name As on Transcript
credits object See Credits object
grading object See Grading object
retaken
STRING
Whether retaken in order to improve grade true for each instance of a retaken course
Note: Credits on retaken courses are earned just once and grades on all attempts are included in the standardized GPA calculation. If earlier grade is not listed on the transcript, it is treated as a D.

Grading

For transcripts with non-standard grades, MeasureOne maps reported grades to standardized letter grades (see value below) using information from the following sources (listed in order of priority): 1. Transcript 2. School website 3. Country-level grade conversions (for non-US transcripts)

Attribute Description Standardized Value
pass_fail
BOOLEAN
Whether evaluated on pass-fail basis i.e. non graded Imputed based on grades
grade_format Format of the grade, i.e. Numeric or Letter LETTER
value
ENUM
Grade earned A, B, C, D - Passing grades on a graded course
Plus/Minus grades (A+, B-) are standardized to a letter with no sign (A, B)

F - Fail on a Graded Course
S - Satisfactory on a Pass-Fail Course (credits are earned)
U - Unsatisfactory on a Pass-Fail Course
P - Pass on a Pass-Fail Course (credits are not earned)
NP - Not Passed on a Pass-Fail Course (credits are not earned)
Withdrawn
Withdrawn-Fail
Incomplete
Incomplete-Fail
Retaken
In-Progress
Transfer
Other GECI - Grade not included in GPA, Credits Earned
Other GECE - Grade not included in GPA, Credits Not Earned
Advanced Placement
grade_points Quality points for grade, used in GPA calculation 4-point scale:
A=4
B=3
C=2
D=1
F=0
W=0

For any given letter, all three possibilities i.e., Plus, Minus and No-sign, have the same value