MeasureOne's standardization API converts data from heterogenous transcript formats into one standardized dataset. All academic transcripts contain similar data but are not easily comparable because of differences in the way institutions record, measure or define the data. Transcripts differ in their grading systems, credit systems, course types, GPA calculation rules, term structures and nomenclature. The underlying logic and standard values are based on insights from over 7000 individual transcripts and our database of school-specific information on grading policies and term structures.
Why Standardize? 1. Cleans and prepares the data for analysis: ensures uniformity in data types, scales/units, and categories for analysis across heterogenous transcripts 2. Addresses data incompleteness: even if a field is not provided on a transcript, whenever possible it is imputed using available data and known relationships 3. Enables comparative analysis: a comparable dataset levels the playing field for all students, ensures robustness of insights and leads to reliable decision-making
Interpreting Standardized Data: MeasureOne provides Processing Codes for further information on the standardized value for a transcript. A detailed description of Processing Codes can be found here.
Transcripts from non-US academic institutions can be standardized if the document is in English and can be reliably converted to US-equivalent grades and credits.
M1 Transcript Schema
|transcript_date||Transcript issue date||mm/dd/yyyy|
|school||Institution issuing transcript||For US Post-Secondary Institutions: As appears in the Integrated Post-Secondary Education Data System (IPEDS). For High Schools and Foreign Institutions: As on transcript|
|school_student_id||Unique school provided student ID||As on Transcript|
|enrollments||object||See Enrollment object|
Standardized values of enrollment-level aggregates such as CGPA or credits earned are calculated using course-level information and MeasureOne's standardized treatment of grades, retaken courses, transfer terms, in-progress terms, missing credits, etc.
|school_enrollment_id||Unique school provided enrollment ID||As on Transcript|
|enrollment_status ENUM||Enrollment status as of transcript date||
|graduation_date||Graduation ceremony date||mm/dd/yyyy Populated for graduated students only|
|college||College name||As on Transcript|
|campus||Campus name||As on Transcript|
|degrees||object||See Degree object|
|degree_awarded_date||Degree awarded date||mm/dd/yyyy Populated for graduated students only|
|major||object||See Major object|
|minor||object||See Minor object|
|honors||Academic honors or awards for current degree Eg: Cum Laude, Summa Cum Laude, Magna Cum Laude||As on Transcript|
|credit_system||Method of recording hours of study Eg: Semester Credits, Quarter Credits, Units, Clock Hours||For Post-Secondary Programs:
For High Schools:
|credits||object||See Credits object|
|institution_cgpa||CGPA for graded courses taken at the institution||Calculated using MeasureOne standardized grade system Scale: 4-point Formula: (Sum of Quality Points)/(Sum of GPA Credits) Definitions|
|transfer_cgpa||CGPA for transferred courses||null|
|total_cgpa||Total CGPA for current program||See
|last_attended_date||Last attended date at current institution||mm/dd/yyyy Can be imputed based from last term details|
|terms||object||See Term object|
Each change in degree sought is listed as a separate object
|degree_level ENUM||Academic level - broad categories||Imputed based on Degree, Degree Type, Program Name or Program Plan
|degree_type ENUM||Academic level - granular categories||Imputed based on Degree, Program Name or Program Plan
|degree||Degree type and area of study Eg: Bachelor of Science, MA in Sociology, BA||As on Transcript|
|program||Degree type, broad area of study and subject specialization Eg: Bachelor of Science in Microbiology, MA in Economics||As on Transcript|
|order||Order in which degrees were sought (reverse chronological)||Imputed from program and term information 1 = current/most recent, 2 = previous, etc.|
|awarded BOOLEAN||Whether degree is awarded as of transcript date or no||Imputed value|
For course-level data, priority is given to reported values when available. If credits earned are not recorded on the transcript, values are imputed based on a combination of credits attemped and grades. For credits
gpa_credits, range: 0-5.
For enrollment-level data, values are calculated using course-level values. For credits
gpa_credits, range: 0-130 (Undergraduate), 0-60 (Graduate), 0-50 (High School).
|attempted||Credits attempted||Units: For Post-Secondary Institutions:
|earned||Credits earned||Units: For Post-Secondary Institutions:
|gpa_credits||Credits attempted on courses that are included in the GPA calculation||Units: For Post-Secondary Institutions:
|quality_points||Numerator for GPA calculation Formula: Credits Attempted x Grade Points Earned||Range (Course): 0-20 Range (Enrollment, Undergraduate): 0-520 Range (Enrollment, Graduate): 0-240 Range (Enrollment, High School): 0-200|
|source ENUM||Source of credits||Course object: null Enrollment object:
Each declared major or change in declared major is listed as a separate object
|major||Subject specialization for current program||As on Transcript|
|concentration||Further specialization within major||As on Transcript|
|department||Department offering the major||As on Transcript|
|order||Order of majors sought (reverse chronological)||Imputed from term dates 1 = current/most recent, 2 = previous, etc.|
Each declared minor or change in declared minor is listed as a separate object
|minor||Secondary specialization for current program||As on Transcript|
|order||Order of minors sought (reverse chronological)||Imputed from term dates 1 = current/most recent, 2 = previous, etc.|
Post-Secondary Institutions: Each enrolled term at the institution is a separate object.
High Schools: Each high school semester is one term object.
Transfer Terms: Courses taken at a previous institution and transferred in are listed as a separate term. There can be multiple transfer terms, one for each institution from which credits are transferred in.
Advanced Placement Terms: Advanced Placement or CLEP exams that count towards credit requirements are listed as a separate term.
|name||Name of term or semester||
|start_date & end_date||Start & end dates of the term or semester||mm/dd/yyyy If transcript has a Winter term: Fall: 10/1 to 12/31 Winter: 1/2 to 3/31 Spring: 4/1 to 6/30 Summer: 7/1 to 9/30 If transcript has no Winter term: Fall: 8/15 to 12/15 Spring: 1/1 to 5/15 Summer: 5/16/ to 8/14 Note: This attribute is not standardized for high schools or non-US transcripts.|
|transfer BOOLEAN||Whether the term represents credits transferred in from an earlier institution||
|transferred_from_school||For transfer terms, institution from which the credits were transferred||As on Transcript|
|advanced_placement BOOLEAN||Whether term represents credits earned via College Board Advanced Placement or CLEP exams||
|in_progress BOOLEAN||Whether term is in progress as of transcript date||If not provided, imputed based on grades ("IP" or not yet available) and/or term dates|
|courses||object||See Course object|
Each course listed on the transcript is one object
|code||Course code||As on Transcript|
|name||Course name||As on Transcript|
|credits||object||See Credits object|
|grading||object||See Grading object|
|retaken STRING||Whether retaken in order to improve grade||
For transcripts with non-standard grades, MeasureOne maps reported grades to standardized letter grades (see
value below) using information from the following sources (listed in order of priority):
2. School website
3. Country-level grade conversions (for non-US transcripts)
|pass_fail BOOLEAN||Whether evaluated on pass-fail basis i.e. non graded||Imputed based on grades|
|grade_format||Format of the grade, i.e. Numeric or Letter||
|value ENUM||Grade earned||
|grade_points||Quality points for grade, used in GPA calculation||4-point scale: A=4 B=3 C=2 D=1 F=0 W=0
For any given letter, all three possibilities i.e., Plus, Minus and No-sign, have the same value